Chair of Entomology

Only publications from the last five years are listed here - in case of further interest, feel free to contact us

Scientific publications

Kurina, O. & Õunap, E. 2023. Morphological and molecular data reveal fifteen new sympatric Zygomyia Winnertz, 1864 (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) species from Ecuador. Zootaxa 5227(1): 001-049. 10.3390/insects12121069

  • Gielen, R.; Robledo, G.; Zapata, A.I.; Tammaru, T.; Põldmaa, K. 2022. Entomopathogenic Fungi Infecting Lepidopteran Larvae: A Case from Central Argentina. Life 12, 974.
  • Fetnassi, N.; Ude, K.; Kull, A. and Tammaru, T. 2022. Weather sensitivity of sugar bait trapping of nocturnal moths: a case study from northern Europe. –  Insects 13: 1087
  • Gielen R., Põldmaa K. & Tammaru, T (2022) In search of ecological determinants of fungal infections: A semi‐field experiment with folivorous moths. Ecology and Evolution 12(5): e8926.
  • Davis R.B., Õunap E, Tammaru T (2022) A supertree of Northern European macromoths. PLoS ONE 17(2): e0264211. 10.1371/journal.pone.0264211
  • Holm, S., Kaasik, A., Javoiš, J., Molleman, F., Õunap, E. &  Tammaru, T. 2022. A comparative study on insect longevity: tropical moths do not differ from their temperate relatives. – Evolutionary Ecology, in press.  
  • Opare, L.O., Holm, S., Esperk, T. 2022.Temperature-modified density effects in the black soldier fly: low larval density leads to large size, short development time and high fat content - Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 0(0): 1-20 doi:10.3920/JIFF2021.0147
  • Teder, T.Kaasik, A.Taits, K. and Tammaru, T. 2021. Why do males emerge before females? Sexual size dimorphism drives sexual bimaturism in insects. - Biological Reviews 96: 2461-2475. doi:10.1111/brv.12762
  • Murillo-Ramos, L., Chazot, N., Sihvonen, P., Õunap, E., Jiang, N., Han, H., Clarke, J.T., Davis, R.B., Tammaru, T., and Wahlberg, N. 2021. Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography and diversification patterns of a diverse group of moths (Geometridae: Boarmiini). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution162: 107198 doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107198
  • Gielen, R.Meister, H.Tammaru, T. and Põldmaa K. 2021. Fungi recorded on folivorous Lepidoptera: high diversity despite moderate prevalence. - Journal of Fungi7: 25. doi:10.3390/jof7010025
  • Esperk, T. and Tammaru, T. 2021. Ontogenetic basis of among-generation differences in size-related traits in a polyphenic butterfly. - Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution9: 612330 doi:10.3389/fevo.2021.612330
  • Valtonen, A., Korkiatupa, E., Holm, S., Malinga, G. M., & Nakadai, R. (2021). Remotely sensed vegetation greening along a restoration gradient of a tropical forest, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Land Degradation & Development, 32( 18), 5166– 5177.
  • Oloya, J., Malinga, G. M., Nyafwono, M., Akite, P.,  Nakadai, R., Holm, S., Valtonen, A. (2021).Recovery of fruit-feeding butterfly communities in Budongo Forest Reserve after anthropogenic disturbance. Forest Ecology and Management 491, 119087
  • Sorjonen, J.M., Karhapää, M., Holm, S., Valtonen, A., Roininen, H. (2021). Performance of the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) on by-product diets in small-scale production. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed: 0 (0): 1 - 6.
  • Laihonen, M., Saikkonen, K., Helander, M. and Tammaru, T. 2020. Insect oviposition preference between Epichloe-symbiotic and Epichloe-free grasses does not necessarily reflect larval performance - Ecology and Evolution 10: 7242-7249. doi:10.1002/ece3.6450
  • Kivelä, S. M.Davis, R. B.Esperk, T., Gotthard, K., Mutanen, M., Valdma, D. and Tammaru, T. 2020. Comparative analysis of larval growth in Lepidoptera reveals instar-level constraints.- Functional Ecology34: 1391-1403 doi:10.1111/1365-2435.13556
  • Sõber, V., Leps, M., Kaasik, A., Mänd, M., Teder, T. 2020. Forest proximity supports bumblebee species richness and abundance in hemi-boreal agricultural landscape. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 298: 106961. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2020.106961
  • Teder, T. (2020). Phenological responses to climate warming in temperate moths and butterflies: species traits predict future changes in voltinism. Oikos, 129: 1051– 1060. doi:10.1111/oik.07119
  • Viljur, M-Liis., Tiitsaar, A., Gimbutas, M., Kaasik, A., Valdma, D., Õunap, E., Tammaru, T. & Teder, T. (2020). Conserving woodland butterflies in managed forests: Both local and landscape factors matter. For. Ecol. Manag, 462: 118002. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118002.
  • Blaus, A., Reitalu, T., Gerhold, P., Hiiesalu, I., Massante, J.C. & Veski, S. (2020). Modern pollen–plant diversity relationships inform palaeoecological reconstructions of functional and phylogenetic diversity in calcareous fens. Front Ecol Evol, 8: 207.doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.00207
  • Massante, J. C. & Gerhold, P. (2020). Environment and evolutionary history depict phylogenetic alpha and beta diversity in the Atlantic coastal white-sand woodlands. J Veg Sci,  00: 1 – 12. doi:10.1111/jvs.12900
  • Tiitsaar, A., Valdma, D., Õunap, E., Remm, J., Teder, T. & Tammaru, T. (2019). Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) in Estonia: Results of a systematic mapping project reveal long-term trends.  Ann Zool Fenn. 56: 147–185. doi:10.5735/086.056.0114
  • Brehm, G., Murillo-Ramos, L., Pasi Sihvonen, P., Hausmann, A., Schmidt, B. C., Õunap, E., Moser, A., Mörtter, R., Bolt, D., Bodner, F., Lindt, A., Parra, L.E. & Wahlberg, N. (2019). New World geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, taxonomic updates and description of 11 new tribes. Arthropod Syst Phylo. 77: 457 - 486. doi:10.26049/ASP77-3-2019-5
  • Molleman, F., Javoiš, J.Davis, R. B., Whitaker, M., Tammaru, T., Prinzing, A., Õunap, E., Wahlberg, N., Kodandaramaiah, U., Aduse-Poku, K., Kaasik, A. & Carey, J. (2019). Quantifying the effects of species traits on predation risk in nature: a comparative study of butterfly wing damage.  J Anim Ecol. 89: 716 – 729. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.13139
  • Murillo-Ramos, L., Brehm, G., Sihvonen, P., Hausmann, A., Holm, S., Ghanavi, H. R., Õunap, E.Truuverk, A., Staude, H., Friedrich, E., Tammaru, T. & Wahlberg, N. (2019) A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Geometridae (Lepidoptera) with a focus on enigmatic small subfamilies. PeerJ. 7: e7386. doi:10.7717/peerj.7386
  • Kivelä, S. M., Gotthard, K. & Lehmann, P. (2019) Developmental plasticity in metabolism but not in energy reserve accumulation in a seasonally polyphenic butterfly. J. Exp. Biol. 222: jeb202150. doi:10.1242/jeb.202150
  • Volynkin, A. V., Saldaitis, A., Titov, S. V. & Truuverk, A. (2019) Six new species of Athaumasta Hampson, 1906 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae) from the mountains of Kazakhstan, Russian Altai and Mongolia. Ecol. Mont. 22: 1 - 26. doi:10.37828/em.2019.22.1
  • Knapp, M., Řeřicha, M., Maršíková, S., Harabiš, F., Kadlec, T., Nedvěd, O. & Teder, T. (2019) Invasive host caught up with a native parasitoid: field data reveal high parasitism of Harmonia axyridis by Dinocampus coccinellae in Central Europe. Biol Invasions,  21: 2795 – 2802. doi:10.1007/s10530-019-02027-4
  • Holm, S., Javoiš, J., Molleman, F., Davis, R. B., Õunap, E., Roininen, H.& Tammaru, T. (2019) No Indication of High Host-Plant Specificity in Afrotropical Geometrid Moths. J Insect Sci. 19 (3): pii1. doi:10.1093/jisesa/iez028
  • Õunap, E., Tammaru, T. & Truuverk, A. (2019). Perizomini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) are polyphyletic. ISE  51: 489 – 516. doi:10.1163/1876312X-00002301.
  • Sõber, V.Sandre, S-L., Esperk, T., Teder, T. & Tammaru, T. (2019). Ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism revisited: females grow for a longer time and also faster. PLoS ONE  14(4): e0215317. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215317
  • Massante, J. C., Götzenberger, L., Takkis, K., Hallikma, T., Kaasik, A., Laanisto, L., Hutchings, M. J. & Gerhold P (2019). Contrasting latitudinal patterns in phylogenetic diversity between woody and herbaceous communities. Sc. Rep. 9: 6443. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-42827-1
  • Holm, S.Javoiš, J., Molleman, F., Davis, Robert B.Õunap, E., Roininen, H. & Tammaru, T. (2019). No Indication of High Host-Plant Specificity in Afrotropical Geometrid Moths. J Insect Sci , 19: 1. doi:10.1093/jisesa/iez028
  • Gyulai, P., Saldaitis, A., Truuverk, A. & Vaitonis, G. (2019). A new Blepharosis species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Zootaxa. 4576: 596 - 600. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4576.3.13
  • Freitak, D., Tammaru, T., Sandre, S., Meister, H. & Esperk, T. (2019). Longer life span is associated with elevated immune activity in a seasonally polyphenic butterfly. J Evol Biol. 32: 653 - 665. doi:10.1111/jeb.13445
  • Pihain, M., Gerhold, P., Ducousso, A & Prinzing, A. (2019). Evolutionary response to coexistence with close relatives: increased resistance against specialist herbivores without cost for climatic-stress resistance. Ecol. Lett. 22 (8): 1285 - 1296. doi:10.1111/ele.13285
  • Volynkin, A., Titov S., Cernila, M., Truuverk, A. & Saldaitis, A. (2019). A new species of Victrix Staudinger, 1879 from Kazakhstan (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Zootaxa. 4563: 325 - 336. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4563.2.6. 
  • Gerhold, P., Ribeiro, E.M.S., Santos, B.A., Sarapuu, J., Tabarelli, M., Wirth, R. & Leal, I.R. (2019). Phylogenetic signal in leaf-cutting ant diet in the fragmented Atlantic rainforest. J. Trop. Ecol.  35: 144 - 147. doi:10.1017/S0266467419000063
  • Javoiš, J.Davis, R.B. & Tammaru, T. (2019). A comparative morphometric study of sensory capacity in geometrid moths. J. Evol. Biol.  32: 380 - 389. doi:10.1111/jeb.13422
  • Maes, D., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., Brosens, D., Beshkov, S., Bonelli, S., Buszko, J., Cantú Salazar, L.,Cassar, L.-F., Collins, S., Dincă, V., Djuric, M., Dušej, G., Elven, H., Franeta, F., Garcia‑Pereira, P., Geryak, Y., Goffart, P., Gór, Á., Hiermann, U., Höttinger, H., Huemer, P., Jakšić, P., John, E., Kalivoda, H., Kati, V., Kirkland, P., Komac, B., Kőrösi, Á., Kulak, A., Kuussaari, M., L’Hoste, L., Lelo, S., Mestdagh, X., Micevski,  N., Mihoci, I., Mihut, S., Monasterio‑León, Y., Morgun, D.V., Munguira, M.L., Murray, T., Nielsen, P., Ólafsson, E., Õunap, E., Pamperis, L.N., Pavlíčko, A., Pettersson, L.B., Popov, S., Popović, M., Pöyry, J., Prentice, M., Reyserhove, L., Ryrholm, N., Šašić, M., Savenkov, N., Settele, J., Sielezniew, M., Sinev, S., Stefanescu, C., Švitra, G., Tammaru, T.Tiitsaar, A., Tzirkalli, E., Tzortzakaki, O., van Swaay, C. A. M., Viborg, A. L., Wynhoff, I., Zografou, K. & Warren, M.S (2019). Integrating national Red Lists for prioritising conservation actions for European butterflies.  J. Insect Conser.  23: 301 – 330. doi:10.1007/s10841-019-00127-z
  • Viljur, M.-L., Relve, A., Gimbutas, M., Kaasik, A. & Teder, T. (2019). Dispersal of open-habitat butterflies in managed forest landscapes: are colonisers special? J. Insect Conser. 23: 259 – 267. doi:10.1007/s10841-018-0112-6
  • Teder, T. & Knapp, M. (2019). Sublethal effects enhance detrimental impact of insecticides on non-target organisms: A quantitative synthesis in parasitoids. Chemosphere. 214: 371 - 378. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.132
  • Sandre, S.-L., Kaart, T., Morehouse, N. & Tammaru, T. (2018). Weak and inconsistent associations between melanic darkness and fitness-related traits in an insect. J. Evol. Biol. 31(12): 1959-1968. doi:10.1111/jeb.13387
  • Mõtlep, M., Tali, K., Ilves, A., Õunap, E. & Kull, T. (2018). Management affects the pollinator abundance but not the reproductive success of butterfly orchids. Plant Ecol.  (published online) doi:10.1007/s11258-018-0882-7
  • Tammaru, T., Johansson, N. R., Õunap, E. & Davis, R. D. (2018). Day-flying moths are smaller: evidence for ecological costs of being large. J. Evol. Biol. 31: 1400-1404. doi:10.1111/jeb.13306
  • Saldaitis, A., Volynkin, A. & Truuverk, A. (2018). Three new species of the genus Lasianobia Hampson, 1905 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from China, with a revised checklist for the genus. Zootaxa. 4472 (2): 343−357. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4472.2.7.
  • Zrzavá, M., Hladová, I., Dalíková, M., Šíchová, J. Õunap, E., Kubíčková, S. & Marec, F. (2018). Sex chromosomes of the iconic moth Abraxas grossulariata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) and its congener A. sylvata. Genes 9,  279. doi:10.3390/genes9060279
  • Gerhold, P., Carlucci, M.B., Procheş, Ş. & Prinzing, A. (2018). The Deep Past Controls the Phylogenetic Structure of Present, Local Communities. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 49: 477-497 doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110617-062348
  • Clarke, J., & Friedman, M. (2018). Body-shape diversity in Triassic–Early Cretaceous neopterygian fishes: Sustained holostean disparity and predominantly gradual increases in teleost phenotypic variety. Paleobiology, 1-32. doi:10.1017/pab.2018.8
  • Lee, K., Kivelä, S.M., & Ivanov, V., Hausmann,  A., Kaila, L., Wahlberg, N. & Mutanen, M. (2018). Information Dropout Patterns in RAD Phylogenomics and a Comparison with Multilocus Sanger Data in a Species-rich Moth Genus. Syst. Biol.  67: 925-939 doi:10.1093/sysbio/syy029
  • Morinay, J., Forsman, J.T., Kivelä, S.M., Gustafsson, L. & Doligez, B. (2018). Heterospecific Nest Site Copying Behavior in a Wild Bird: Assessing the Influence of Genetics and Past Experience on a Joint Breeding Phenotype. Front Ecol Evol. 5:167. doi:10.3389/fevo.2017.00167
  • Forsman, J.T., Seppänen, J.-T., Mönkkönen, M., Thomson, R.L., Kivelä, S.M., Krams, I. & Loukola, O.J. (2018). Is it interspecific information use or aggression between putative competitors that steers the selection of nest-site characteristics? A reply to Slagsvold and Wiebe. J. Avian Biol. 49: e01558doi:10.1111/jav.01558
  • Meister, H., Hämäläinen, R., Valdma, D., Martverk, M. & Tammaru, T. (2018). How to become larger: ontogenetic basis of among-population size differences in a moth. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 166: 4–16.doi:10.1111/eea.12634
  • Viljur, M.-L. & Teder, T. (2018). Disperse or die: Colonisation of transient open habitats in production forests is only weakly dispersal-limited in butterflies. Biol. Conserv. 218: 32−40. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2017.12.006
  • Holm, S.Javoiš, J.Õunap, E.Davis, R.B.Kaasik, A., Molleman, F., Tasane, T. & Tammaru, T.  (2018). Reproductive behaviour indicates specificity in resource use: phylogenetic examples from temperate and tropical insects. Oikos.  127: 1113-1124 doi:10.1111/oik.04959
  • Kivelä, S. M., Viinamäki, S., Keret, N., Gotthard, K., Hohtola, E. & Välimäki, P. (2018). Elucidating mechanisms for insect body size: partial support for the oxygen-dependent induction of moulting hypothesis. J. Exp. Biol. 221:jeb1666157. doi:10.1242/jeb.166157
  • Lindman, L., Remm, J., Meister, H. & Tammaru T. (2018). Host plant and habitat preference of Euphydryas maturna (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Melitaeinae): evidence from northern Europe. Ecol. Entomol. 43:102-113. doi:10.1111/een.12474
  • Rohner, P.T., Teder, T., Esperk, T., Lüpold, S. & Blanckenhorn, W.U. (2018). The evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism is associated with increased body size plasticity in males. Funct Ecol. 32: 581-591. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.13004
  • Lindt, A., Tasane, T., Õunap, E., & Viidalepp, J. (2017). Five new species of the genus Paromphacodes (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae) from High Andes in Ecuador. Zootaxa. 4303 (3): 395-406. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4303.3.5
  • Forsman, J.T., Seppänen, J.-T., Mönkkönen, M., Thomson, R.L., Kivelä, S.M., Krams, I. & Loukola, O.J. (2017). Is it interspecific information use or aggression between putative competitors that steers the selection of nest-site characteristics? A reply to Slagsvold and Wiebe. J. Avian Biol. in press. doi:10.1111/jav.01558
  • Viljur, M.-L. & Teder, T. (2018). Disperse or die: Colonisation of transient open habitats in production forests is only weakly dispersal-limited in butterflies. Biol. Conserv. 218: 32−40. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2017.12.006
  • Kivelä, S. M., Viinamäki, S., Keret, N., Gotthard, K., Hohtola, E. & Välimäki, P. (2017). Elucidating mechanisms for insect body size: partial support for the oxygen-dependent induction of moulting hypothesis. J. Exp. Biol. In press. doi:10.1242/jeb.166157
  • Rohner, P.T., Teder, T., Esperk, T., Lüpold, S. & Blanckenhorn, W.U. (2017). The evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism is associated with increased body size plasticity in males. Funct Ecol. 2017;00:1–11. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.13004
  • Prous, M., Kramp, K., Vikberg, V. & Liston, A. (2017). North-Western Palaearctic species of Pristiphora (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae).  J. Hymenopt. res. 59: 1-190. doi:10.3897/jhr.59.12656
  • Liston, A. D., Heibo, E., Prous, M., Vårdal, H., Nyman, T. & Vikberg, V. (2017). North European gall-inducing Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Zootaxa. 4302: 1–115.doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4302.1.1 
  • Schmidt, S., Taeger, A., Morinière, J., Liston, A., Blank, S. M., Kramp, K., Kraus, M., Schmidt, O., Heibo, E., Prous, M., Nyman, T., Malm, T. & Stahlhut, J. (2017). Identification of sawflies and horntails (Hymenoptera, ‘Symphyta) through DNA barcodes: successes and caveats.  Mol Ecol Resour.17: 670–685. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12614
  • Kivelä, M. S., Friberg, M., Wiklund, C. & Gotthard, K. (2017). Adaptive developmental plasticity in a butterfly: mechanisms for size and time at pupation differ between diapause and direct development. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 46-57. doi:10.1093/biolinnean/blx047
  • Saldaitis, A., Yakovlev, V. R. & Truuverk, A. (2017). Review of the genus Kerzhnerocossus Yakovlev, 2011 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) with descriptions of two new species from Russia and Mongolia. Zootaxa. 4294: 389−394. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4294.3.9
  • Gyulai, P., Saldaitis, A. & Truuverk, A. (2017). Notes on the Agrotis colossa Boursin problem, with the description of new Agrotis species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Zootaxa. 4291: 144−154. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4291.1.8
  • Meister, H., Esperk, T., Välimäki, P. & Tammaru, T. (2017). Evaluating the role and measures of juvenile growth rate: latitudinal variation in insect life histories. Oikos. 126: 1726–1737. doi:10.1111/oik.04233
  • Meister, H., Tammaru, T., Sandre, S-L., Freitak, D. (2017) Sources of variance in immunological traits: evidence of congruent latitudinal trends across species. J. Exp. Biol220 (14):2606-2615. doi:10.1242/jeb.154310
  • Roslin, T., Hardwick, B., Novotny, V, Petry, W.K., Andrew, N., Asmus, A., Barrio, I.C., Basset, Y., Boesing, A.L., Bonebrake, T.C., Cameron, E.K., Dáttilo, W., Donoso, D.A., Drozd, P., Gray, C.L., Hik, D.S., Hill, S., Hopkins, T., Huang, S., Koane, B., Laird-Hopkins, B., Laukkanen, L., Lewis, O.T., Milne, S., Mwesige, I., Nakamura, A., Nell, C.S., Nichols, E., Prokurat, A., Sam, K., Schmidt, N.M., Slade, A., Slade, V., Suchanková, A., Teder, T., van Nouhuys, S., Vandvik, V., Weissflog, A., Zhukovich, V. & Slade, E.M. ( 2017). Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations. Science356:742-744. doi:10.1126/science.aaj1631
  • Kiik, K., Maran, T., Nemvalts, K., Sandre, S-L. & Tammaru, T. (2017).  Reproductive parameters of critically endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity. Anim Reprod Sci. 181:86-92. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.019
  • Truuverk, A., Õunap, E. & Tammaru, T. (2017). Epirrita Pulchraria (Taylor, 1907) transferred to Malacodea, with notes on the phylogeny and ecology of the tribe Operophterini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae). Zootaxa. 4258:145-156. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4258.2.4
  • Hudson, L. N., Newbold, T., Contu, S., Hill, S. L. L., Lysenko, I., De Palma, A., …, Teder, T., …, Tiitsaar, A., …, & Purvis, A. (2017).The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project. Ecol.Evol. 7: 145–188. doi:10.1002/ece3.2579

Appearances in Estonian media



Virve Sõber Tolmeldajaid toetavad tegevused põllumajandusmaastikus 10.31-10.46

Tiit Teder Et mitmekesisusest ei saaks kesisus: kuidas kaitsta ja säilitada tolmeldajaid muutuvas maailmas? 10.46-10.58

Brasiilia populaarteadusajakirjas ilmunud artikkel lehelõikaja sipelgate ja inimeste ühistest eelistustest

doi: 10.21800/2317-66602019000300014.

Tiit Teder peab ettekande teemal "Millises metsas sammalhabe elaks?"

Book about butterflies

ISBN 9789949935468


Bachelor’s degree graduation ceremony 2024